1. About the Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation  

The Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation is designed to provide graduates with knowledge and skills in computer-based 3D modelling, rigging, animation, lighting and texturing suitable for a broad range of 3D design and animation-related sectors and employment opportunities. The Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation interweaves the acquisition of practical skills with the study of 3D design, underpinned by foundations of 3D modelling, animation and interactivity in the games industry, and the study of professional practice in 3D design and animation workplaces. The course design incorporates industry-informed briefs, industry mentors, client projects, internship opportunities and study of emerging areas of 3D design and animation practice.   The Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation enables the combination of a well-rounded 3D design and animation generalist knowledge base with focused niche skills development in a 3D design and animation specialist area, leading either to graduate‐level employment in the 3D design sector or to further research-based enquiry or specialised design study at a post-graduate level.

Graduate employment opportunities

The Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation is designed to provide graduates with a broad range of theoretical and technical base of 3D design and animation knowledge and skills, complemented with specialist expertise in one or more areas, for graduate‐level employment in 3D generalist and 3D specialist roles including:

  • 2D/3D Concept artist
  • 3D Animator
  • 3D Concept artist
  • 3D Games artist
  • 3D Generalist
  • 3D Modeller
  • 3D Visualization artist
  • 3D Tracker/matchmover
  • Art Director
  • Animation Director
  • Character Designer
  • Digital Matte Artist
  • Environment Designer
  • Previsualisation (previz) Artist
  • Visual Effects (VFX) Artist

Graduates can expect to undertake these roles as permanent or freelance employees, either within a dedicated film or broadcast postproduction, animation, visual effects or game studio environment, or alternatively as an in-house specialist working for organisations based within any of the following sectors: advertising, web/interactive, education/training or architectural visualisation. Graduates are also encouraged to explore fields of employment outside of the creative industries such as product design, architectural modelling, automotive modelling, engineering simulator, scientific and medical visualisation that 3D design and animation technical skills are required in.

  Course Overview

Course Title Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation
Study Options – Domestic Australian students Face to Face delivery

Online delivery

Full-time and part-time options available.

Study Options – International students International students on a student visa must not enrol into any more than a third or 33% of online subjects over their course and must study at least one subject that is face to face in each trimester.

International students on a student visa are required to study full time, i.e. the student must complete a minimum of 1.0 EFTSL of study per year.

Start Dates February, June, September

For specific dates visit the website.

Course Length Full-time:  3 years

Part-time: 6 years

Payment Options – Domestic Australian students Upfront payment

This means tuition fees will be invoiced each semester and payment is required on or before the due date.

FEE-HELP

FEE-HELP is Australian Government’s loan scheme for higher education degree courses. It can assist you in paying for all, or part of, your course fees. Repayments commence via the tax system once your income rises above a minimum threshold. Just like with any other debt, a FEE-HELP debt is a real debt that impacts your credit rating.

Payment Options – International students Upfront payment

This means tuition fees will be invoiced each semester and payment is required on or before the due date.

Course study requirements Each subject involves 10 hours of study per week, comprising 3 hours of facilitated study and 7 hours self-directed study. Assessment  Essays, reports, presentations scenario and case studies, and reflective journals.
Locations Sydney

Melbourne

Online

Delivered by Torrens University Australia
Provider Torrens University Australia Ltd is registered as a self-accrediting Australian university by the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency (TEQSA). CRICOS Course Code 103341M
Provider obligations Torrens University is responsible for all aspects of the student experience, including the quality of course delivery, in compliance with the Higher Education Standards 2015 Accrediting body Torrens University Australia Ltd
Course Fees For details, refer to the website. Any other fees For details, refer to the website.
  1. Essential requirements for admission

The general admission criteria that apply to Torrens University Australia courses can be located by visiting the Torrens University Australia website – /general-admission-information-for-torrens-university-australia-ltd.

  1. Student Profile

The table below gives an indication of the likely peer cohort for new students in this course. It provides data on students who commenced in this course in the most relevant recent intake period, including those admitted through all offer rounds and international students studying in Australia.

Applicant background Trimester one / Full year intake [2020]
Number of students Percentage of all students
(A) Higher education study
(includes a bridging or enabling course)
<5 N/P
(B) Vocational education and training (VET) study <5 N/P
(C) Work and life experience
(Admitted on the basis of previous achievement not in the other three categories)
<5 N/P
(D) Recent secondary education:    

·         Admitted solely on the basis of ATAR
(regardless of whether this includes the consideration of
adjustment factors such as equity or subject bonus points)

<5 N/P
·         Admitted where both ATAR and additional criteria were considered
(e.g. portfolio, audition, extra test, early offer conditional on minimum ATAR)
N/A N/A
·         Admitted on the basis of other criteria only and ATAR was not a factor
(e.g. special consideration, audition alone, schools recommendation scheme with no minimum ATAR requirement)
11 55%
International students <5 N/P
All students 20 100%

Notes:          “<5” – the number of students is less than 5.

N/A – Students not accepted in this category.

N/P – Not published: the number is hidden to prevent calculation of numbers in cells with less than 5 students.

  1. Admission Criteria
Title of course of study Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation
Applicants with higher education study ·         A completed higher education qualification at AQF level 5 (diploma) or above, or equivalent, from an Australian University or another accredited higher education provider

OR

·         Successful completion of at least 1 EFTSL (equivalent full-time student load, or one full year) of an AQF level 6 (Associate Degree) or above, or equivalent, from an Australian University or another accredited higher education provider.

Applicants with vocational education and training (VET) study

·           A completed vocational education qualification at AQF level 4 (Certificate IV) or above, or equivalent, from a registered training organisation (RTO)

OR

·           Successful completion of at least 1 EFTSL (equivalent full-time student load, or one full year) of an AQF level 5 (Diploma) or above, or equivalent, at a registered training organisation (RTO).

Applicants with work and life experience Demonstrated ability to undertake study at the required level:

·         broadly relevant work experience (documented e.g. CV), demonstrating a reasonable prospect of success;

OR

·         formal, informal or non-formal study, completed or partially completed, demonstrating a reasonable prospect of success;

OR

·         written submission to demonstrate reasonable prospect of success;

OR

·         discipline specific portfolio (art and/or design).

English Language Proficiency

(applicable to international students, and in addition to academic or special entry requirements noted above)

IELTS (or equivalent) score of 6.0 minimum (Academic Module) or above, with no skills band less than 5.5
Applicants with recent secondary education (within the past two years) with ATAR or equivalent*

(for applicants who will be selected wholly or partly on the basis of ATAR)

Completed year 12 or equivalent

Pathway 1:

Satisfactory (pass) completion of Standard English at HSC or equivalent level.

Pathway 2: Current Special Entry

*ATAR profile for those offered places wholly or partly on the basis of ATAR in T1 2020:

(ATAR-based offers only, across all offer rounds)

ATAR (OP in QLD)
(Excluding adjustment factors) *
Highest rank to receive an offer <5
Median rank to receive an offer <5
Lowest rank to receive an offer <5

Notes:  * “<5” – indicates less than 5 ATAR-based offers were made

Other admission options

 (For applicants who will be selected on a basis other than ATAR)

Special Entry Applicants in any category whose study, work or life experiences have been impacted by disability, illness or family disruption will be given special consideration for admission. Each application will be considered on its merit, based on the evidence supplied by the applicant attesting to the circumstances of the applicant. Applicants for special entry may need to complete written or numerical tasks to assist with assessing eligibility for admission.
  1. How to apply

Via direct application to the institution

  1. Advanced standing/academic credit/recognition of prior learning (RPL)

You may be entitled to credit for prior learning, whether formal or informal. Formal learning can include previous study in higher education, vocational education, or adult and community education. Informal learning can include on the job learning or various kinds of work and life experience. Credit can reduce the amount of study needed to complete a degree.

Applicants admitted based on prior higher education study may be eligible for Advanced Standing in the form of credit and/or recognition of prior learning (RPL) under the Torrens University Australia Credit Policy – (/policies-and-forms).

  • Students with completed subjects may be eligible for specified credit and/or elective exemptions
  • Students who have completed a qualification at AQF level 5 (diploma) or above may be eligible for block credit (where a block credit agreement exists)
  • Students with a mix of formal study and informal and/or non-formal learning may be eligible for recognition of prior learning in addition to any credit approved.

Credit will not be applied automatically. Applicants must apply for credit and/or RPL as early as possible prior to each study period, with applications not accepted after week 2.

For further information about credit and recognition of prior learning please see /apply-online/course-credits.

  1. Where to get further information
  1. Additional Information

Course Structure

The Course Structure comprises eight common core subjects, 12 specialised and four elective subjects over Levels 100, 200, and 300, as follows:

  • Level 100: three common core subjects; four specialised subjects; one elective subject
  • Level 200: three common core subjects; four specialised subjects; one elective subject
  • Level 300: two common core subjects, four specialised subjects; two elective subjects (one x 300 level and one x 200 or 300 level elective).

* Electives available to students may be chosen from the elective bank (please refer to the Course Structure on the Student HUB) or can be taken from any Torrens University course at the appropriate level with approval from the Program Director (or delegate).

Course Rules

To be awarded the Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation, students will need to complete 240 credit points over 24 subjects as outlined in the Course Structure.  Each subject has a value of 10 credit points.

Subjects

SUBJECT DETAILS
SUBJECT TITLE, DESCRIPTOR
LEVEL 100
DCX101- Design Context

Design Contexts is a foundational subject that introduces students to the designed world and their place within it. Students are encouraged to explore the interconnected nature of design and its capacity to inspire change, drive progress and navigate complex challenges. Through observation, research and iterative approach students will develop a series of creative responses that demonstrate an awareness of the value of design and its ability to create meaningful interactions for people, communities and their environments.

ACR103- 3D Asset Creation

3D Asset Creation introduces the fundamental concepts of developing 3D models for use in digital media and allows the students to familiarise with industry standard 3D modelling tools and techniques to communicate complex ideas and emotions. Students will develop a foundational understanding for the principles and techniques required for creating practical digital assets such as props, characters and environments.

ACR101- 2D Asset Creation

2D Visual Asset Generation utilises traditional art foundation theories and contextualises these practices for the digital domain. Students will create artefacts in digital formats for a variety of uses including concept art, pixel art, in-game assets, colour keys, user interface flow diagrams and more. Practical applications of art specifically for games will also be covered such as the basics of 2D digital animation. Students will receive critique from lecturers and learn to evaluate their own artwork with a critical eye.

DSO102- Design Studio 1

This subject explores the relationship between materials and storytelling. It introduces students to the attributes of materiality and encourages them to re-imagine the possibilities of creating through making.  Students will explore the art of paper folding, developing skills and taking creative risks. These results will be captured digitally and altered using the appropriate software. Individual tasks allow students to develop an understanding and appreciation of materials, their many varied uses, properties, and the sustainable manufacturing processes related to them. Students will progress towards determining suitable materials in which to construct their final model with its form and function contextualised and supported by a documented process journal. Their final submission will be a model that reminds us that stories which fill our lives are not only spoken and written but sometimes are best told through craft.

B3DANP100- Animation Principles

This subject explores the fundamental principles and a variety of techniques to produce animations within 3D software. This subject introduces the fundamental concepts and ideas relating to keyframe based animations such as speed, ease and velocity. Students are also introduced to alternative methods of animation including expressions and custom scripting, procedural and dynamics based animations. These skills are designed to expand student awareness of applying animation to a wide range of potential outcomes such as game design, broadcast motion design, social media, branded identity or advertising.

BCI100- Beyond the Creative Industries

This subject introduces a wide array of emerging trends and interdisciplinary career opportunities that sit outside traditional creative industries. This subject explores the intersection of technology and design across a range of industries looking beyond the field of entertainment. Students broaden their understanding of potential career opportunities by challenging existing stereotypes where specialist technical skills are utilised. Students are encouraged to investigate case studies, identify emergent trends and examine strategies to develop, navigate and cultivate collaborations with professionals from other specialisations.

DSO103- Design Studio 2

Design Studio 2 offers an introduction to the building blocks of creating and developing brands and is designed to give students a broad understanding of the stages and methodologies adopted in the brand development process. The subject draws on the theory and practice that sits behind brand creation. It covers the broad spectrum of brand development, values, trends and branding techniques, as well as fundamentals such as brand positioning and brand architecture. The subject also explores the relationship between branding and audiences, cross-cultural influences and shifts in consumer behavior. Students must first understand and apply the fundamentals of branding and then go on to use that knowledge as the basis for developing and progressing a brand. This theoretical and practical subject will equip students with the knowledge and insight with which to build their own branding expertise.

LEVEL 200
DSO201- Design Studio 3

The subject introduces business practices such as costing, time management, value engineering and general models of monetising and valuing output typical of a variety of design industries. Case study analyses of a typical design industry business practices, domestic and international, acquaint students with the differences and similarities that exist. Students learn about contractual agreements, and where appropriate become familiar with international shipping and distribution terms as well as an introduction to design copyright laws.  Initial overview of time allocation practices and the creation and understanding costing terms such as: Bill of Material (BOM) /Scope of Work / Deliverables used in typical projects is followed by application. Students plan a project from start to finish through to the development of an appropriate project management plan for their industry such as time management charts with typical dependencies highlighted and costed.

B3DHSE200- Hard Surface & Environment Modelling

This subject focuses on continuing to develop a variety of different of modelling and 3D design skills suitable for the creation of photorealistic and animated visualisations. This subject introduces a variety of professional hard surface modelling techniques common in a variety of complex 3D forms, along with a range fundamental modelling approaches such as geometry efficiency, polygon management manipulation.  This subject also explores a variety of approaches to designing and modelling both natural and manmade environments. Students will learn scale-accurate 3D design principles and techniques specific to the creation of photorealistic 3D models and materials. These assets and skills are applicable for a variety of applications such as film compositing set design, game level and world design and architectural visualisation.

In addition to learning about photorealistic approaches, students will also have the opportunity to design, develop and explore bespoke stylistic visual approaches complimentary to photorealism.

B3DPGW200- Procedural Geometry and Workflow

This subject covers the theory and methodology of 3D procedural geometry and animation workflows which enable students to develop 3D models, assets and content in a programmatic way as opposed to a linear asset development path or individual asset sculpting and modelling workflows. The subject explores how retaining the ability to edit 3D assets and animation up to the final step is beneficial for both artist and client within a procedural workflow. This subject introduces how procedural scripting and programmatic node based 3D development of models and animations enables for powerful results for particles, simulations, and dynamics. This alternative procedural workflow expanded upon in this subject is designed to expand student’s capabilities for 3D outcomes to match industry leading approaches.

PBL202- Problem Based Learning

Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical approach that enables students to learn while engaging actively with meaningful problems. Students are given the opportunities to problem-solve in a collaborative setting, create mental models for learning, and form self-directed learning habits through practice and reflection. The underpinning philosophy of PBL is that learning can be considered a “constructive, self-directed, collaborative and contextual” activity. The principle of construct positions students as active knowledge seekers and co-creators who organise new relevant experiences into personal mental representations with the help of prior knowledge. This is further reinforced by social theories of learning that advance the merits of social interaction in cognitive development. The aim of this subject is to trigger student learning with a problem which needs resolution. Students make connections to the challenge by activating their individual and collective prior knowledge and finding resources to make sense of the phenomenon; they also engage in peer learning through small-group discussions and consolidate their learning through reflective writing. Beyond enabling students to make sense of the concepts and subject matter, this learning experience will also help students develop an understanding of themselves and their contexts, and the ways and situations in which they learn effectively.

ANI203- Animation

This subject provides students with foundational and core skills in rigging and animating characters and 3D elements in industry pipelines. The principles in animation, kinematics, rigging mechanics, animation direction and performance are explored, to inform the processes involved. Students will investigate industry techniques and practices and apply these in common scenarios in the field of game development and interaction.

AAC202- Advanced 3D Asset Creation

This subject builds and expands upon the 3D asset creation techniques explored and practiced in ACR103.

Students will explore more advanced methodologies used in professional practice and integrate them into their existing workflows. This includes the areas of modelling, sculpting, texturing, shading and other 3D processes. With these principles and techniques, students will be able to achieve even greater artistic results with better efficiency.

DDD203- Discover, Define, Develop, Deliver

The myth of innovation is that brilliant ideas leap fully resolved from the minds of geniuses. The reality is that most innovation comes from a process of rigorous examination through which great ideas are identified and developed before being realised as new offerings and capabilities.

This subject introduces Problem Based Learning (PBL), mapped out as the ‘Double Diamond’, the collaborative process by which the designer’s sensibilities and methods are employed to integrate the needs of people, the possibility of technology and the requirement for business success. In short, Double Diamond approach converts need into demand. It’s a human-centred approach to problem-solving that focuses thinking about meanings instead of features, searching for radical changes instead of improvements and proposing visions instead of satisfying existing needs.

Today, designers across many disciplines share some similar approaches to the creative process. Every design specialist has a different approach and way of working, but there are some commonalities in their creative process. Divided into four distinct phases – Discover, Define, Develop and Deliver – the Double Diamond is a simple visual map which illustrates the PBL approach.

In this subject, students examine a range of possible ideas – divergent thinking; before refining and narrowing down to the best idea – convergent thinking. To discover which ideas are best, the creative process is iterative. Ideas are developed, tested and refined many times, with weak ideas dropped in the process. This cycle is an essential part of a good design strategy.

Students are introduced to practical design methods – like user journeys, empathy mapping, character profiles – and how they can be used to move a project through the four phases of the Double Diamond.

Discover – The first quarter of the Double Diamond model covers the start of the project. Students look at the world from a fresh perspective; notice new things and gather insights.

Define – The second quarter represents the definition stage, in which students analyse and synthesise all of the possibilities identified in the Discover phase. Which matters most? Which should we act upon first? What is feasible? The goal here is to develop a clear creative brief that frames the fundamental design challenge.

Develop – The third quarter marks a period of development where solutions or concepts are created, prototyped, tested and iterated. This process of trial and error helps students to improve and refine their ideas.

Delivery – The final quarter of the Double Diamond model is the delivery stage, where the resulting project (a product, service or environment, for example) is finalised, produced and launched.

Thinking like a designer can transform the way you develop products, services, processes – and even strategy.

LEVEL 300
SEN301- Social Enterprise

Social Enterprise is an exciting theoretically-based subject that is driven by the desire to create positive change through entrepreneurial activities. By providing students with a framework to understand business model generation and the skills to source, evaluate, and measure opportunities through systematic research and competitor analysis, Social Enterprise empowers students to conceptualise, develop and propose new ventures and products that focus primarily upon social change for good. In addition, this subject will help students understand and address the practical challenges of working within this environment; to analyse different entrepreneurial business strategies, to explore diverse funding strategies, as well as incorporate theoretical discussions on major trends and issues in the social economy. Social Enterprise enables students to appreciate the power of creativity in problem-solving and the importance of the designer’s role in making a difference and precipitating change.

B3DLLD300- Lighting & Look Development

This subject focuses on different lighting and look development approaches of 3D assets and animations. Different approaches required when using rendering engines such as Arnold or using real-time game engines such as Unreal are also explored.  An emphasis is placed on a variety of physical based render (PBR) material, textural, lighting, colour and shadow technical approaches that can change the look and feel of existing 3D assets. Students engage with the post-production workflows to produce different stylistic visual outcomes.  A variety of lighting techniques and light methodologies are employed to enhance the visual outcomes of 3D assets. Students will render with both compositing and real-time outcomes to display their texture artistry and their creative lighting development.

B3DRTA300- Real Time Animation Production

This subject covers the principles, methods and structures required for real-time 3D animation production in real-time engines. Students explore asset development using professional pipeline workflows between their 3D program to model, texture, rig, and animate, before developing and editing their scenes within the gaming engine. A focus is placed on optimisations of their 3D assets in order to ensure the best performance inside of the real-time engine. Pipeline planning and scripting will be introduced as a way to optimise workflow. The subject also covers animation production and production design concepts and techniques to equip students with strategies to produce a collaborative team-based production.

CDM301A- Major Project

This subject addresses new and emerging processes, practices and techniques within the field of design and technology. In response to a self-identified area of exploration, students design, construct and document a body of work that acts as a vessel for personal creative investigation and output. Requiring a critical understanding of research methodologies and practices, this subject challenges students to identify an emotional and authentic core to their body of work, whilst simultaneously authenticating their own position as emerging professional designers.

WIL302- Work Integrated Learning

OR

WIL302B- Work Integrated Learning (Industry Live Brief)

This subject is designed to provide students with professional experience in an area related to their field of study or the career they are working towards. The aim of providing industry-specific opportunities is to enable students to develop skills that will enhance their prospects of gaining meaningful employment and building their career for the future.
Much of the benefit of work integrated learning comes from observation, practicing under supervision and reflection. Work Integrated Learning is an excellent way to broaden the students learning environment while they are studying. It allows them to see first-hand how what they are learning in their degree translates into practice, as well as how ‘real world’ practice relates to what they are learning at University. This subject will develop work ready skills and boost students’ employability while they are studying.
There are two work integrated learning options available to students:

Option 1: Internship
Students are offered the opportunity to work within a professional design environment for an extended period of time. It encourages students to build long-term relationships with the design industry and exposes them to the rigour of applied design practice while building their confidence in adapting to new environments. It also provides a context in which to enhance their communication skills and work collaboratively in a professional arena. Students will undertake a series of research tasks, conducting interviews and gathering data in order to understand the key concepts in managing a professional design practice with emphasis placed on the operation of the professional design environment.

Option 2: Industry Live Brief
This subject requires students to respond to criteria set within the context of an Industry Live Project. An understanding of research methodologies appropriate to professional practice and the documentation of personal creative investigation will be explored. Students will also further investigate and examine entrepreneurial and commercial opportunities through collaborative work practice. The subject is delivered from a cross discipline perspective and draws on both discipline specific and common design practices. Students are required to work both independently or as part of a collaborative team in order to conduct research, analyse and define project parameters and deliver innovative solutions that expand the notion of an industry live brief.

CDM303A- Portfolio

This subject focuses on exploring a broader understanding of design portfolios and the presentation of creative works to form a cohesive and authentic personal narrative. Contextualised through the lens of current industry requirements, students define their own design philosophy and use this to compose an effective personal design identity and portfolio. Supported by self-directed research, students evaluate contemporary styles, methods and formats of presentation to deliver a portfolio and suite of materials that can be used to initiate dialogue between themselves and the design industry.

Locations

The Bachelor of 3D Design and Animation can be studied fully online or at the below Torrens University Campuses:

  • Sydney: Level 1, 46-52 Mountain Street, Ultimo NSW Australia 2007
  • Melbourne: 196 Flinders St, Melbourne, VIC 3000

Campus Facilities and Services

All campuses are designed to provide students with professional spaces in which to learn and work. They have been planned with student study needs in mind with well-equipped accessible learning spaces as well as student breakout areas for group work and spending time with friends.

Facilities and Services include:

  • The Customer Service Hub – our friendly and experienced staff can give help and advice about courses, your enrolment and campus life, including all services and activities on campus.
  • Counsellors are available for students to consult with on a range of personal issues
  • Student wireless access throughout the Campus
  • Student break-out and relaxed study spaces for group work
  • Student lounge areas – most with microwaves, kitchenette facilities and vending machines
  • The Learning Hub, home to the Learning Support Team, encompasses Learning Skills Advisors, Learning Technology Advisors, and Library & Learning Skills Officers. It provides an integrated, holistic support program for students throughout the study lifecycle within a library/collaborative study environment.

The service includes:

  • Support and workshops with highly qualified staff in the areas of Academic skills, Library skills, and Technology skills, both on campus and online.
  • Physical and digital resources relevant to studies, such as books, journals, multimedia, databases
  • Self-check kiosks for library loans and print and copy facilities

A positive student experience

Torrens University Australia values the importance of a positive student experience, and therefore has robust processes to resolve student complaints.  The Student Complaints Policy, and associated procedures, can be accessed from the website (/policies-and-forms).

Paying for your qualification

We offer two payment options for this course:

  • Upfront payment

If you want to complete your qualification debt-free you can choose to pay as you go. This means tuition fees will be invoiced each semester and payment is required on or before the due date using EFTPOS, credit card or direct transfer.

  • FEE-HELP

FEE-HELP is Australian Government’s loan scheme for higher education degree courses. It can assist you in paying for all, or part of, your course fees. Repayments commence via the tax system once your income rises above a minimum threshold ($45, 881 in 2019-20). Just like with any other debt,
a FEE-HELP debt is a real debt that impacts your credit rating.

Further information about FEE-HELP, including eligibility, is available at:

Austudy and Abstudy

Students enrolled in this course may be eligible for government assistance, such as Austudy or Abstudy.